Gays in the Military:

AFI 32-3206. "Administrative Discharge of Commissioned Officers," Oct. 14, 1994, especially Chapter 3, "Determining Whether to Discharge for Misconduct, Moral or Professional Dereliction, Homosexual Conduct, or in the Interest of National Security," para. 3.3: Homosexual Conduct.

Berube, Allan. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two. New York: The Free Press (Plume), 1990. Contact: The Free Press, 866 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10022.

Cammermeyer, Margarethe (with Chris Fisher). Serving in Silence. New York: Viking, 1994. Contact: Penguin Books, 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY, 10014.

Francke, Linda Bird. Ground Zero: The Gender Wars in the Military. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Graham, Robert D. Military Secret. Dallas, Monument Press, 1993.

Humphrey, Mary Ann (editor). My Country, My Right to Serve: Experiences of Gay Men and Women in the military, World War II to the Present. New York: Harper Collins, 1988. See contribution by Joseph Steffan, pp. 235-242.

Kennedy, James E. About Face: A Gay Officer's Account of How He Stopped Prosecuting Gays in the Army and Started Fighting for Their Rights. New York: Birch Lane (Carol), 1995. Contact: Carol Publishing Group, 120 Enterprise Avenue, Secaucus, NJ, 07094.

Rand Corporation (National Defense Research Institute). Sexual Orientation and U.S. Military Personnel Policy: Options and Assessment. Los Angeles: Rand, 1993. contact: Rand, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA, 90407-2138, 310-393-0411 ext. 6686.

Osburn, C. Dixon and Benecke, Michele. Conduct Unbecoming: Second Annual Report on "Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Pursue" Violations. Washington: Servicemembers' Legal Defense Network, 1996. Contact SLDN at 202-328-3244, or

Osburn, C. Dixon and Michele Benecke. Third Annual Report on "Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Purse" Violations. Washington: Servicemembers' Legal Defense Network, 1997.

Shawver, Lois. And the Flag Was Still There: Straight People, Gay People, and Sexuality in the U.S. Military. New York: Haworth Press, 1995. This book contains a chapter, "The Question of Heterosexual Modesty," just about the only significant discussion (besides Browning's) of Nunn-Moskos's arguments that I found. The author makes many tantalizing points; get this book.

Shilts, Randy. Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Military. New York: Fawcett-Columbine (Ballantine), 1994.

Simpson, Diane. "Current Military Issues: Gays in the Military," Selected References. Air University Library, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, 1996. This pamphlet contains a long list of administration and congressional documents and periodical articles.

Steffan, Joseph C. Honor Bound: A Gay American Fights for the Right to Serve His Country. New York: Villard (Random House), 1992.

Steffan, Joseph C., Wolinsky, Marc, and Sherrill, Kenneth. Gays in the Military: Joseph Steffan versus the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Wells-Petry, Melissa (Maj. USA Ret.). Exclusion: Homosexuals and the Right to Serve. Washington: Regnery, 1993.

United States Code, Public Law 103-610, Section 571, 10USC654, p. 92, "Policy Concerning Homosexuality in the Armed Forces."

U.S. Congress. Senate. Armed Services Commitee. Hearings Vol. 7. 103rd Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994. Available at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Congress. House. Armed Services Committee. Hearings Vol. 4. 103rd Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994. Available at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Zuniga, Jose M. Soldier of the Year: The Story of a Gay American Patriot. New York: Pocket Books (Simon & Schuster), 1994. Contact: Pocket Books, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020.


Gallo, Robert. Virus Hunting: AIDS, Cancer, and the Human Retroviruses. New York: New Republic Books, 1988.

Garrett, Laurie. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World out of Balance. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1994.

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin, 1988. Originally published in 1987 by St. Martin's Press.

Political and Social Viewpoints:

American Civil Liberties Union. The Rights of Gay People. New York: Bantam, 1983, 1992. This handbook gives particularly disturbing and sobering accounts of how our government has treated gay people applying for security clearances and how, today, it still treats gay members of the military.

Baker, Daniel B., Sean O. Strub, Bill Henning, and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Initiative. Cracking the Corporate Closet: The 200 Best (and Worst) Companies to Work For, Buy from, and Invest in If You're Gay or Lesbian- and Even If You Aren't. New York: Harper Business, 1994.

Bagby, Meredith. Annual Report on the United States of America: What Every Citizen Should Know About Where Each Tax Dollar Goes and Why. New York: Harper Business, 1996. The publisher requests comments be sent to Harper Business, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY, 10022-5299, attn: Meredith Bagby. Ross Perot has presented and discussed her book in public debates.

Baird, Robert and Rosenbaum, Stuart (editors). Same-Sex Marriage: the Moral and Legal Debate. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1997. Contains many essays showing both the pro and con views. Contributors include Daniel Maguire, Richard Mohr, Robert Knight, and James Q. Wilson.

Bawer, Bruce (editor). Beyond Queer: Challenging Gay Left Orthodoxy. New York: The Free Press, 1996. This reader contains essays by Jonathan Rauch, Paul Varnell, Daniel Mendelssohn, Andrew Sullivan, and others.

Boaz, David. Libertarianism: A Primer. New York: Free Press, 1996.

Boaz, David (editor). Friedman. The Libertarian Reader: Classic and Contemporary Writings from Lao-Tzu to Milton Friedman. New York: Free Press, 1996.

Boaz, David and Edward H. Crane, (editors). Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 21st Century. Washington: Cato, 1993. Write: The Cato Institute, 1000 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, D.C., 20001.

Bork, Robert H. The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of The Law. New York: The Free Press, 1990. Contact: Macmillan, 866 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10022.

Bork, Robert H. Slouching Towards Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline. New York: Regan, 1996. Contact: Harper Collins, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY, 10022.

Browne, Harry. Why Government Doesn't Work. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Contact: St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, 10015.

Browning, Frank. The Culture of Desire: Paradox and Perversity in Gay Lives Today. New York: Crown, 1993. Browning provides some discussion of the military "privacy" issue.

Bull, Chris and John Gallagher. Perfect Enemies: The Religious Right, the Gay Movement, and the Politics of the 1990's. New York: Crown, 1996.

Buhrke, Robin (editor). A Matter of Justice: Lesbians and Gay Men in Law Enforcement. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Buttino, Frank. A Special Agent: Gay and Inside the FBI. New York: William Morrow, 1993.

Cisewski, Gene. Gays, Lesbians and the State. Washington: MontiCello, 1997. To obtain this paper, contact the author at

Clinton, William J., President of the United States. Between Hope and History: Meeting America's Challenges for the 21st Century. New York: Random House, 1996.

Dionne, E. J., Jr. They Only Look Dead: Why Progressives Will Dominate the Next Political Era. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Eskridge, William N. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage: From Sexual Liberty to Civilized Commitment. New York: The Free Press, 1996.

Farrell, Warren, Ph. D. The Myth of Male Power. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993. Write: Warren Farrell, Ph.D., 103 North Highway 101, Box 220, San Diego, CA, 92024.

Gallagher, Maggie. The Abolition of Marriage: How We Destroy Lasting Love. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1996.

Gerzon, Mark. A House Divided: Six Belief Systems Struggling for America's Soul. New York: Putnam, 1996. Gerzon makes the interesting comment that almost everyone is a member of some minority group.

Gilder, George. Men and Marriage. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company, 1986. Contact: Pelican Publishing Company, 1101 Monroe Street, Gretna, LA, 70053.

Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. Out on the Job, Out of a Job: Lesbian/Gay Employment. New York: LLDEF, 1993. Order from LLDEF, 666 Broadway, Suite 1200, New York, N.Y. 10012-2317.

Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund. Negotiating for Equal Employment Benefits: A Resource Packet. New York, LLDEF, 1995.

Liebman, Marvin. Coming Out Conservative: A Founder of the Modern Conservative Movement Speaks Out on Personal Freedom, Homophobia, and Hate Politics. San Francisco: Chronicle Press, 1992. Note Liebman's comments on Korea and Vietnam, pp. 182-183, in conjunction with my Chapter 2.

McNaught, Brian. Gay Issues in the Workplace. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

McWilliams, Peter. Ain't Nobody's Business if You Do: The Absurdity of Consensual Crimes in Our Free Country. Los Angeles: Prelude, 1995. Contact: Prelude, 8159 Santa Monica Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, 90046, 800-LIFE-101.

Mixner, David. Stranger Among Friends. New York: Bantam, 1996.

Murray, Charles. What It Means to Be a Libertarian: A Personal Interpretation. New York: Broadway Books, 1997.

Murchison, William. Reclaiming Morality in America: Why Traditional Morals Are Collapsing and What You Can Do About It. Atlanta: Thomas Nelson, 1994.

Nichols, Jack. The Gay Agenda: Talking Back to the Fundamentalists. Amherst: Prometheus, 1996.

Patterson, James T. Grand Expectations: The United States, 1934-1974. London: Oxford University Press, 1996. Patterson is Professor of History at Brown University. This book gives a thorough account of the controversy surrounding the draft and deferments during the Vietnam war, as well as the reasons for Johnson's Vietnam policies.

Powers, Bob and Ellis, Alan. A Manager's Guide to Sexual Orientation in the Workplace. New YorK: Routledge, 1995. (Note: This book, as does the subsequent companion A Family and Friend’s Guide to Sexual Orientation [1996], displays a white-on-red circular “Do Ask Do Tell” button on its cover. Both books provide in the text the authors’ interpretation of the concept. As far as I can determine, the “Do Ask Do Tell” phrase does not appear in the formal title of either book nor is it displayed by the publisher as the name of a series.) 

Ruwart, Mary. Healing Our World: The Other Piece of the Puzzle. Kalamazoo: SunStar, 1992-93. Contact: SunStar Press, P.O. Box 342, Kalamazoo, MI, 49005-0342.

Satinover, Jeffrey, M.D. Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.

Strauss, William and Howe, Neil. The Fourth Turning: An American Prophecy. What the Cycles of History Tell Us About America's Next Rendezvous with Destiny. New York: Broadway, 1997. The authors present a cyclical view of history is some contrast to my view that society has fundamentally changed. Decide for yourself!

Sullivan, Andrew and Landau, Joseph (editors). Same-Sex Marriage, Pro and Con: A Reader. New York: Vintage, 1997. Many contributors, and excerpts from court opinions and congressional testimony.

Sullivan, Andrew. Virtually Normal: An Argument About Homosexuality. New York: Knopf, 1995.

Vaid, Urvashi. Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay and Lesbian Liberation. New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1995.

Weinberger, Caspar and Peter Schweitzer. The Next War. Washington, Regnery Publishing, 1996. Includes a Forward by Margaret Thatcher.

Psychology and Science:

Burr, Chandler. A Separate Creation: The Search for the Biological Origins of Sexual Orientation. New York: Hyperion, 1996.

Hannotte, Dean (editor). We Knew Paul: Conversations with Friends and Students of Paul Rosenfels. New York: Ninth Street Center, 1990. See Rosenfels, below.

Hillman, James. The Soul's Code: In Search of Character and Meaning. New York: Random House, 1996.

Kirk, Marshall and Hunder Madsen. After the Ball: How America Will Conquer Its Fear and Hatred of Gays in the 90's. New York: Plume, 1990.

Kominas, Sheppard B., Ph. D. and Kathrryn D. Kominas, Ph. D.: Accepting Ourselves and Others: A Journey into Recovery from Addictive and Compulsive Behaviors for Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals. Center City, MN: Hazelden, 1996. Contact: Hazelden, Center City, Minnesota, 55012-0176, 612-257-4010.

Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, "Sexual Orientation, Definition and the Question of Choicce," Report No, 93-659 SPR, Washington, D.C., July, 1993.

Rauch, Jonathan. Kindly Inquisitors: The New Attacks on Free Thought. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Redfield, James. The Celestine Prophecy. Published by the author in 1993 and re-published by Time-Warner (New York) in 1994. The Sequel is The Tenth Insight. Highly-condensed, pocket versions were published by Warner in 1996. There is some treatment of personal "power." Compare his insights with those presented in Chapter 3.

Rosenfels, Paul. Homosexuality: The Psychology of the Creative Process. New York: Ninth Street Center, Inc., 1972; 1986. With introduction by Dean Hannote, 1986. For more information, contact: Ninth Street Center, Inc., 151 First Avenue, Suite 25, New York, NY, 10003, 212-228-5153. The center offers several other books and monographs by Paul Rosenfels, including Love and Power: The Psychology of Interpersonal Creativity (1966) and Psychoanalysis and Civilization: The Psychological Basis of Social Life (1962). The center currently offers a monthly psychological discussion group and a separate study group in New York City; call the number above for details.

Schlessinger, Laura. Ten Stupid Things Women Do To Mess Up Their Lives. New York: Harper Perennial (originally Villard), 1994.


Buergental, Thomas. International Human Rights. Minneapolis, West Publishing, 1988/1995. Contact West Publishing, 620 Opperman Drive, Eagan, Mn. 55123-1396.

Cassler, Robert. Second in the Realm. Orem, Utah: Performance Publishing, 1995. This is a play showing some of the history behind the Magna Carta. Contact: Performance Publishing, P.O. Box 692, Orem, Utah, 84057.

Covington, Robert and Decker, Kurt. Individual Employee Rights. Minneapols, West Publishing, 1995.

Kluge, David. The People's Guide to the United States Constitution. New York: Citadel (Carol Group), 1996.

Harvard Law Review, Sexual Orientation and the Law. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Lacey, Michael and Knud Haakonssen, editors. A Culture of Rights: The Bill of Rights in Philosophy, Politics, and Law, 1791 and 1991. London: Cambridge University Press, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1991. The most important contribution is an essay by William W. Fisher III: "The Development of Modern American Legal Theory and the Judicial Interpretation of the Bill of Rights."

Monk, Linda. The Bill of Rights: A User's Guide. Washington: Close Up Publishing, 1991/1995.

Posner, Richard A. and Katharine B. Silbaugh. A Guide to America's Sex Laws. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Rapa, Barbara Kate. Your Rights in the Workplace: A Complete Guide for Employees. Berkeley: Nolo Press, 1994. Contact: Nolo Press, 950 Parker Street, Berkeley, CA, 94170.

Reed, Ralph, and the Christian Coalition. Contract with the American Family. Nashville: Moorings, 1995.

Spaeth, Harold and Smith, Edward. The Constitution of the United States. Harper Collins, College Outline, 1991.

Wintemute, Robert. Sexual Orientation and Human Rights: The United States Constitution, the European Convention, and the Canadian Charter. London: Clarendon Press, Oxford University, 1995. $74.00.


Boswell, John. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Gomes, Peter. The Good Book: Reading the Bible with Mind and Heart. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1996. The author is a preacher at Harvard University.

Goodwin, Everett C., editor. Baptists in the Balance: The Tension Between Freedom and Responsibility. Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1997. Contributions by William G. McLoughlin, C. Eric Lincoln and Lawrence H. Mamiya, Stan Hastey, Molly T. Marshall, Joel B. Green, David M. Scholer, Eldon G. Ernst, James M. Dunn (including discussion of the Bill of Rights), Bill J. Leonard, Malcolm G. Shotwell, Nancy T. Ammerman, Edwin S. Gaustad, Melissa Rogers, Oliver Thomas, Bill Moyers, Lawrence G. Sherman, Denton Lotz, Shirley Taylor Haizlip, Ralph Reavis, Norman S. Johnson, Sr., Daniel E. Weiss, Vincent L. Wimbush, James H. Evans, Jr., Foreword by Bill Moyers.

(I am mentioned on p. xxii of the Acknowledgments, as someone who reviewed some of the materials.)

Peck, Scott. All-American Boy. New York: Scribner, 1995.


The Quill, published by Gays and Lesbians for Individual Liberty PO Box 65743, Washington, DC 20035-5743. Bill Boushka, Editor. Articles by: various. See

 Ground Zero News, published by The Chinook Fund, PO Box 1982, Colorado Springs, CO 80910. Frank Whitworth, Editor. Many contributors.

Forward Observer, published by Gay Lesbian and Bisexual Veterans of America, James Darby and Mack Thomas, editors. Many contributors.

The Washington Blade, The Gay Weekly of the Nation's Capital, 1408 U St NW, 2nd Floor, Washington, D.C. 20009-3916. Back issues (from 1969) are available in the microfilm reading room, Jefferson Building, at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., and (since 1986) through University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Mi.


Merton Thompson. Poetic Ramblings. Kearney, Nebraska: Morris Publishing, 1994. See "America Answers" (p. 1, note indirect reference to draft), "The Persian Gulf," p. 17, "The Middle East," p. 17, "Vietnam War," p. 59, and especially "True Friend," p. 106, remarkably like the freshman English theme that got me into trouble (Chapter 1). Contact: Poetic Ramblings, c/o Merton Thompson, PO Box 319, Broken Arrow NE 68855 ($6.95 + postage)


The following works, I believe, have a political or social context relevant to the issues of my book; most of them are mentioned in the text.

Anthony, Kris. Requiem: When We No Longer Touch. Dallas Turtle Creek Chorale and Symphony Orchestra, 1993. AmFar (privately distributed in stores such as Lambda Rising and CrossRoad's Market).

Bach, J.S. Magnificat, BWV 243. Polygram DG 419466.

Beethoven, L.V. Concerto #5 in E-flat for Piano and Orchestra, "Emperor," Op. 73. Many recordings.

Beethoven, L.V. Symphony #9 in D-minor, "Choral," Op. 125. I recommend Bernstein's recording, titled "Ode to Freedom," recorded live in Berlin, Dec. 25, 1989, shortly after the Berlin Wall fell. Polygram DG 429861

Boito, Arrigo. Mefistofele. CBS-Sony 44983.

Britten, Benjamin. Peter Grimes. I recommend Britten's own recording, containing (in program notes) Philip Brett's essay "The More Vicious the Society, the More Vicious the Individual: Peter Grimes and its Message." Britten may have understood the gay identity intellectually better than any other composer. Polygram/London 414577. Three compact disks.

Britten, Benjamin. Billy Budd. This opera does dramatize the "unit cohesion" problem, in the 18th Century British Navy. Trouble is, it seems to ratify the Nunn-Moskos point of view. Get Britten's own recording, Polygram/London 417428.

Charpentier, Marc. David and Jonathan. Corboz: Lyon. BMG/Erato 2292-45162.

Corigliano, John. Symphony #1. Barenboim: Chicago Symphony. BMG/Erato 2292-45601.

Dvorak, Antonin. A Hero's Song, Op. 111. Chandos 8798.

Elgar, Edward. Enigma Variations. Many recordings.

Liszt, Franz. A Faust Symphony. Solti, Chicago Symphony and Male Chorus. Polygram/London 417399.

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony #2 in C-minor, "Resurrection." Many recordings.

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony #8 in E-flat, "Symphony of a Thousand." Part II is a setting of Goethe's Faust. Many recordings.

Mozart, W.A. Concerto #25 for Piano and Orchestra in D Major, "Coronation," K. 537.

Nielsen, Carl. Saul and David. Chandos 8911/12.

Shostakovich, D. Symphony #13 in B-flat Minor, Op. 113, "Babi Jar." Set to poetry by Yevtushenko (1967). The last poem, "A Career," commends Galileo for looking for scientific truth, and compares him to a contemporary scientist who gave in to religious orthodoxy because he had a family to support.

Webber, Andrew Lloyd with Tim Rice (lyrics). Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Raincoat (1967). MCA 399. Read all the lyrics; much of it deals with Joseph's feeling of being born to a "better life" with higher position than his more fungible brothers.

Films: (recent)

A Few Good Men (1992). Presents a view of the Marine Corps "hazing" (Code Red) controversy.

Coming Out Under Fire (1994), based on Allan Berube's book.

Serving in Silence: The Margarethe Cammermeyer Story (TV-NBC, 1995).

Stonewall (1996).

Wild Reeds (1995).

My own web page   contents page